General Education

The current general education system is based on the Law on General Education adopted in April 2005. The Law is the main provision of the principle rights and freedoms of students, their parents, and teachers. It also regulates the structure of school management and the funding mechanism of general education schools. According to the Law, school boards of trustees, teacher councils, administrators and student unions participate in school governance. According to the same Law, the state funds general education schools according to a per capita financing model.

Education is distributed on three levels: Primary (grades 1 through 6), basic (grades 7 through 9) and secondary (grades 10 through 12). According to the Law, completion of basic education is compulsory in Georgia.

The Law recognizes each general education school as a legal entity of public law. This status entitles schools to generate their own budget and to exercise independence in administrative matters. Schools are also entitled to develop their own individual school curriculum. However, the individual school curriculum must be brought in line with the national curriculum. Also, all general education schools are expected to achieve standards set forth by the national curriculum.

The system of general education also includes the National Curriculum and Assessment Center (NCAC), the National Examination Center (NEC), the Teachers’ Professional Development Center (TPDC), and Education Resource Centers (ERC). The NCAC (established in 2006,) is responsible for the development of the national curriculum, development of the student assessment system, establishment of national education standards, and the piloting and approval of textbooks. The NEC (established in 2006) is an agency accountable for the admissions processes in higher education institutions. Specifically, the NEC is responsible for the development and administration of the United National Entrance Examinations i.e., admissions examinations for general education school graduates to post-secondary education institutions. The TPDC (established in 2006) is responsible for the development and establishment of teachers’ professional standards and code of ethics; professional requirements for teacher certification; and accreditation and approval of teacher professional development programs. The ERCs function as regional branches of the Ministry of Education and Science that provide assistance to schools and facilitate educational activities at schools by collecting data, conducting research, and organizing trainings, workshops, seminars, etc.